Rich Shiffrin (1942- ) a cognitive scientist at Indiana University (USA) and Wolfgang Schneider (1950-) professor of psychology at the University of Würtzburg (Germany) conducted a series of experiments which provide support for two types of cognitive performance.
Controlled processing uses short-term memory and involves the ad hoc creation of temporary routines to provide a flexible response to a novel situation. Automatic processing, on the other hand, does not use up short-term memory resources, since it operates outside the learner's conscious control and independently of attention.
Read and reflect: U-shaped learning
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