Bakhtin was an important scholar active in philosophy, literary criticism and psychology, writing in Russia in the 1920s and 1930s, but generally unacknowledged in Russia until the 1960s, and unknown in the West until shortly after his death in 1975.
Of relevance to the socially situated approaches to learning presented here is the notion of dialogism:
All utterances are dialogic; that is, all utterances have an addressor and an addressee.
(Swain & Deters, 2007)
In general education research circles, dialogic interactions are contrasted with dialectic exchanges: whereas in dialectic interaction with learners, the teacher solicits the expression of differing learner points of view in the process of moving toward one pre-determined position, in dialogic interaction, learner contributions may actually influence the course and outcomes of the interaction.