Learning & Teaching Foreign Languages

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For researchers who work on second language learner variables like Elaine Horowitz:

Motivation is a consistently strong predictor of successful language learning.


Some learners have instrumental motivation: they need to learn for professional or other utilitarian reasons.  Others have integrative motivation: they develop an affinity for the target language culture which stimulates their language learning.


  1. Read more: Motivation research
  2. Play: Language learners' motivation

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