In his dialogic model, Bakhtin is less interested in such sociocultural concepts as tools and mediation, but rather in the process of making meaning between two speakers: for Bakhtin, an utterance includes the language used and its interpretation as an answerable act. All utterances are therefore dialogic, including an addressor and an addressee.
The mutual participation of speakers and hearers in the construction of utterances and the connectedness of all utterances to past and future expressions.
Zuenger & Miller, 2006
In a Vygotskyan sociocultural framework, Swain argues that second language research which focuses on either input or output in isolation misses the effect of collaborative dialogue on interlanguage development and use, since
Internal mental activity has its origins in external dialogic activity.
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